Pressure Sore Resources – Pressure Injury
According to the Minnesota Department of Health (the department that regulates nursing homes) in an article titled’ “A Physician’s Practioner’s & Clinician’s Reference Guide for Pressure Ulcer Prevention & Treatment”: a pressure ulcer [pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, bed sore] is any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to the underlying tissue. Although friction, shear and moisture are not primary causes of pressure ulcers, friction, shear and moisture are important contributing factors to the development of pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are generally found over bony prominences.
Pressure injury ulcers are staged according to their extent of tissue damage. The current definitions for the stages of pressure ulcers are:
Stage 1: An observable, pressure-related alteration of intact skin, whose indicators as compared to an adjacent or opposite area of the body may include changes in one or more of the following parameters: Skin temperature (warmth or coolness), Tissue consistency (firm or boggy), sensation (pain or itching) and/or a defined area of persistent redness in lightly pigmented skin, whereas in darker skin tones, the ulcer may appear with persistent red, blue or purple hues.
Stage 2: Partial thickness skin loss involving epidermis, dermis or both. The ulcer is superficial and presents clinically as an abrasion, blister or shallow crater.
Stage 3: Full thickness skin loss involving damage to, or necrosis of, subcutaneous tissue that may extend down to, but not through, underlying fascia. The ulcer presents clinically as a deep crater with or without undermining of adjacent tissue.
Stage 4: Full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction, tissue necrosis, or damage to muscle, bone, or supporting structures (e.g., tendon, joint capsule). Undermining and sinus tracts also may be associated with Stage IV pressure ulcers.
Minnesota Department of Health – Adverse Health Events Factsheet – Pressure Sore Resources – Pressure Ulcers
The Minnesota Department of Health Recommends the Following Pressure Sore Resources
www.wocn.org (Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nurse Society)
www.ahrq.gov (Agency for Health Care Research and Quality)
www.amda.org (American Medical Directors Association)
www.npuap.org (National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel)
www.medqic.org (Medicare Quality Improvement Community Initiatives)
www.healthinaging.org (Sponsored by The American Geriatrics Society)
National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Ulcer Resources
The NPUAP has developed illustrations of the stages of pressure ulcers (Category/Stage I-IV, suspected deep tissue injury, unstageable). These illustrations and pressure sore resources can be downloaded from the NPUAP:
- Category/Stage One
- Category/Stage Two
- Category/Stage Three
- Category/Stage Four
- Suspected Deep Tissue Injury
NPUAP Educational and Clinical Pressure Sore Resources
- NPUAP Pressure Ulcer Stages/Categories
- Nursing Curriculum
- Treatment and Prevention Slide Sets
- Webinars (archived also available)
- Best Practices for Prevention of Medical Device-Related Pressure Ulcers
- Image Library
- Support Surfaces Terms and Definitions
- Pressure Ulcer Category/Staging Illustrations
- PUSH Tool
- Pressure Ulcer Prevention Points
- Shear Force Slide Set
- Minimum Data Set 3.0 (MDS 3.0)
NPUAP Push Tool Information Pressure Sore Resources
The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH Tool) was developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) as a quick, reliable tool to monitor the change in pressure ulcer status over time.
- PUSH Tool (web version)
- PUSH Tool (pdf version)
- Reprint Agreement (pdf)
- Information and Registration Form
- Instructions for Using PUSH
- Copyright Policy & Contract
NPUAP Position Statements Pressure Sore Resources
- Pressure Ulcers with Exposed Cartilage Are Stage IV Pressure Ulcers
- Staging Pressure Ulcers
- Mucosal Pressure Ulcer
- Reverse Staging
Additional Pressure Ulcer Resources
The information contained on this blog article is for educational purposes only, speak directly with a lawyer for a legal opinion, please review my disclaimer.